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Incidenta si terapia in sindromul diareic cu etiologie parazitara la caini si pisici

Categoria: Referat Medicina

Descriere:

The laboratory investigations were conducted by direct examination of the coprologic samples, using warm saline to detect Giardia trophosoits. We also used Willis and Mc. Master ovohelminthoscopic flotation techniques. The incidence of endoparasite infestations was determined by age category...

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` Incidence and treatment of the diarrhoeic syndrome with
parasite aetiology in dogs and cats.
                              Incidenţa şi terapia în sindromul diareic cu etiologie
                                                  parazitară la câini şi pisici.
                            *F.M.V. Spiru Haret
**U.S.A.M.V. Bucureşti

                                                                 Abstract
The investigations were carried out on a number of 153 dogs and 23 cats from different breeds and ages with a diarrhoea syndrome after a long therapy with antibiotics. Faecal examinations point out infestations with species of protozoa and nematodes correlated with age of animals. Infestations with Isospora sp. were diagnosed in 49.5 % from examined dogs and in 30.4 % from cats registered only in puppies.
Incidence of infestations with Giardia sp. were recorded in 15.6 % dogs from which 83.3 % in puppies and 26.08 % in young cat s. The incidence of infestation with Toxocara canis was 28.7 % in dogs from which 81,8 % in puppies and with Toxocara cati 21.7 % in cats from which 60 % in young cats. Infestations with Ancylostomidae where diagnosed in 18.3 % dogs from which 53.5 % in puppies and 8.6 % in young cats. Infestations with Trichocephalus where registered only in dogs with an incidence of 11.7% from which 61.1 % in adults.
The control of infestations with Isospora sp. was carried out with Ultrasol   20 -30mg/Kg i.m. for 3 days running with 96 % efficacy. Infestations with Giardia sp. where carried out with Flagyl administrated orally for 6 days running with 30 -40mg/Kg registered 85 % efficacy. The control of infestations with nematodes was carried out with usual antihelminthics and registered an entirely efficacy after 10 days.
Key words – protozoas, nematodes, dogs, cats, incidence, therapy.

                                                 Introduction

       The diarrhoeic syndrome in pets is a frequent disorder observed mainly in young animals (6). The treatment uses a range of antibiotics but the cure is not always 100% because the syndrome’s aetiology may also involve parasitic agents (protozoa and helminths). The determination of the polyfactorial aetiology of the diarrhoeic syndrome requires the identification of the endoparasites species in laboratory. Minnaarn W.N. et al. (8) investigated 164 pet dogs and reported 88% incidence of infestation with Ancylostoma caninum, 36% with Toxocara canis, 9% with Toxascaris leonina and 6% with Trichocephalus vulpis. The authors mentioned the zoonotic potential of these nematoda species. Horejs R., Kondela B.(5) reported a 53.2% incidence of infestation with Giardia in puppets aged 6-12 weeks, 3.4% in adult male dogs and 7% in bitches. O Lorcain P. (7) investigated 350 dogs and 81 cats and reported Ascaridae infection in 82.6% of the puppies aged 3-6 months and in 42% of the young cats. Gonenc A. şi col.(3) used Drontal plus in Ascaridae infections in dogs and reported 100% efficacy.

                                                    Material and  methods

    The investigations were conducted within the clinic of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Spiru Haret University, during February 2006 – June 2007, on 153 dogs and 23 cats of various breeds and ages. The animals displayed a persistent diarrhoeic syndrome after long-term medication with antibiotics. The laboratory investigations were conducted by direct examination of the coprologic samples, using warm saline to detect Giardia trophosoits. We also used Willis and Mc. Master ovohelminthoscopic flotation techniques. The incidence of endoparasite infestations was determined by age category.
    Treatment of Isospora infestations was done with Ultrasol, 20 – 30 mg /kg, IM, for 3 consecutive days. Giardia infestations were treated with Flagyl, 30 – 40 mg/kg. per os, for 6 days. Toxocarosis and ancylostomosis were treated with Drontal plus, Cestal plus or Pratel, per os, in usual doses.Trichocephalus vulpis infestations were treated with Triantelm or Paratak, per os, in usual doses.
                                              Results and discussions

The coproscopic revealed infestations with protozoa and nematodes correlated with pet’s age. Table 1 displays the incidence of Isospora sp., infestations showing 76 positive cases (49.6 %) in the examined dogs, 100 % in the puppies. Only 7 positive cases (30.4 %) were detected in cats, all in the young felines.(Table 1)

    Table 1
                                  Incidence of Isospora sp. infestations
    
 
  Species
       Examined  
     animals    Positive    
  cases      Percentage            Youngs          Adults
                   Nr.       %      Nr.       %
   Dogs     153    76      49.6         76      100        -         -
   Cats     23    7      30.4           7      100        -     -
   Total     176    83      47.1         83
      100
        -     -

Mitchell S.M. et al.(9) conducted in 2007 experiments of Beagle bitches aged 6 – 8 weeks infested with 5 x 104 Isospora canis oocysts and observed the start of the syndrome 9 – 11 days after infestation, with a patience of 7 – 18 days. The authors concluded that Isospora canis may be the main cause for the diarrhoeic syndrome in puppies.
Papazahariadon M. et al. (10) observed in 2007 a 3.9 % incidence of the Isospora sp. infestation in the coprologic examination of 281 puppies.
Of the 76 dogs infested with Isospora canis, in 67 cases (88.1 %) the infestations occurred in puppies aged 1 – 3 months and in 9 cases (11.8 %) the infestations occurred at the age of 4 – 6 months. In kittens, on 7 positive cases, in 5 animals (71.4 %) the infestations were diagnosed at the age of de 1 – 3 months and in 2 cases (28.5 %) in cats 4 – 6old. (Table 2).

    Table 2                                                                      
                     Incidence of Isospora sp. infestations by age group
            
Species    Positive cases        Age 1-3 months    Age 4-6 months

    
    Nr.          %       Nr.    %
Dogs    76    67         88.1       9    11.8
Cats    7    5         71.4       2    28.5
Total    83    72          86.5      11    13.2


The incidence of Giardia infestation is as follows: of 153 examined dogs, 24 (15.6%) were infested with Giardia canis, of which 83.3% were puppies and 16.6% were adult dogs. Of 23 examined cats, 6 (26.08%) were infested with Giardia, all being kittens. (Table 3)
 
     Table 3
                                               Incidence of Giardia sp. infestations
                                 

  Species        Examined    
  animals    Positive cases    Percent %    Youngs    Adults
                Nr    %    Nr.    %
Dogs    153    24          15.6    20     83.3    4    16.6
Cats     23     6     26.08     6     100    -    -
Total    176    30     17.04    26     86.6    4    13.3
                                
The incidence of Giardia sp. infestations by age groups is as follows: 75% of the infestations occurred in puppies aged 1 to 3 months, 20% in puppies aged 4 to 7 months and 5% in dogs aged 8 to 10 months. In the young cats infested with Giardia cati, 66.6% of the cases occurred in animals aged 1 to 3 months and 16.6% each in cats aged 4 to 7 months and 8 to 10 months.(Table 4)

    Table 4
           Incidence of Giardia sp infestations by age group in young animals
 

Species    Positive
  cases    Age 1-3 months    Age 4-7 months       Age 8-10 months
          Nr.         %      Nr.        %        Nr.        %
   Dogs         20       15       75,0        4      20,0         1        5,0
   Cats           6         4       66,6        1      16,6         1      16,6
   Total         26       19       73,0        5      19,2         2        7,6

Heusinger A.(4) reported in 2007 a 21% incidence of Giardia sp. infestations in dogs, determined by ELISA on 3999 coprology samples.
Papazahariadon M. et al. (10) reported a 4.3 % incidence of Giardia canis infestations in 281 examined coprology samples. Diaz V. et al. ( 1 ) published in 1996 the results of the epidemiological study of giradiosis in dogs conducted by coproscopy examination and on the samples of matter curetted from the duodenum from slaughtered animals and from corpses.
The incidence of Giardia infestation was 21.9% in puppies aged a few months and 10.8% in adult dogs.
            Toxocara canis infections was observed in 28.7% of the examined dogs, of which 81.8% in puppies and 18.1% in adult dogs. Five cats (21.7%) showed Toxocara canis infections, 60.0% in kittens and 40.0% in adult cats.(Table 5)





Table 5
                                   Incidence of Toxocara sp. infestations
                   

   Species    Examined animals    Positive
cases      Percent
%    Youngs    Adults
                Nr.    %    Nr.    %
Dogs      153    44    28.7    36    81.8     8    18.1
Cats      23     5    21.7      3    60.0     2    40.0
Total      176    49    27.8    39    79.5    10    20.4


1 Jacob H.T. et al. (6) surveyed in 2007 the prevalence of gastrointestinal infections with nematodes in dogs, determined by coprologic examination and necropsy. The incidence of Toxocara canis infestation was 21.0%, of Ancylostoma caninum infestation was 32.0% and of Trichocephalus vulpis was 3.0%.
Papazahariadon M et al. (10) diagnosed a 12.8% prevalence of Toxocara canis infestation, 19.6% for Trichocephalus vulpis, 2.8% for Ancylostoma caninum and 0/7% for Toxascaris leonine.
El. Memjakie S. M et al. (2) conducted investigations on the importance of the Toxocara species to the public health. The authors mention the zoonotic character of Toxocara infestations in the carnivore pets and its implication to the health state of the children. The incidence of Toxocara infestations was 14.6% of the dogs and 5.2% in cats. The presence of adult ascarids was observed in 18.7% of the slaughtered dogs and in 7.4% of the cats. The authors verified the destructive effect of 4 chemical disinfectants on Toxocara eggs and noticed that 5% ammonia is the most efficient, followed by the phenolic acid, formaldehyde and betadine solution.
Of the 153 examined dogs, 28 (18.3%) showed infestation with Ancylostoma caninum, of which 15 (53.5%) were puppies and 13 (46.4%) were adult dogs. The incidence was 8.6% in cats, all in kittens.(Table 6)

Table 6
                           Incidence of Ancylostoma sp. infestations
               

  Species    Examined animals    Positive
cases    Percent
%    Youngs    Adults
                N.    %    Nr.    %
Dogs      153    28    18.3    15    53.5    13    46.4
Cats      23      2      8.6      2    100    -    -
Total      176    30      17.04    17    56.6    13    43.3

    








           The incidence of Trichocephalus vulpis infestation in dogs was 11.7%, of which 38.8% in puppies and 61.1% in adult animals. Nr. Trichocephalus vulpis infestation was observed in the examined cats.(Table 7)
 
 Table 7
                Incidence of Trichocephalus vulpis infestations
                

   Species    Examined animals    Positive cases    Percent %    Youngs    Adults
                Nr    %    Nr.    %
Dogs    153    18    11.7    7    38.8    11    61.1
Cats    23    -    -    -    -    -    -
Total    176    18    10.2    7    38.8    11    61.1

                                                                     
                  

  Isospora sp. infestations were treated with Ultrasol, 20 – 30 mg / kg, IM, for 3 days. The treatment conducted on 46 puppies with infestations cured 44 of the animals (95.6% efficacy). Giardia sp. infestations were treated with Flagyl, 30 – 40 mg / kg. per os, for 6 days, with an efficacy of 85% (Table 8).

Table 8
                                         Therapeutic  aspects in protosoosis
    

            Disease    Level of infection-OPG
           Animals
       Efficacy

    %
       before         after       treated    cured    
                  treatement            
Isosporosis    150-1500       0-100      46      44       95,6
Giardiosis        ++++      + -- ++      20      17      85,0

Nematodes infestation was treated in digs as follows: Toxocara and Ancylostoma infestations were treated with one of the following drugs, Drontal plus Cestal plus or Pratel, in the usual dozes, with 100% efficacy. Trichocephalus vulpis infestations in dogs were treated with Triantelm or Paratak, per os, in the usual dozes, with 100% efficacy (Table 9).
 
 Table 9    
                                  Therapeutic  aspects in nematodes infestations
                          

       Disease    Level of infection-OPG
             Animals
       Efficacy
    %
       before         after        treated     cured    
                treatement            
Toxocarosis      50-1500           0        36        36       100
Ancylostomosis    100-1650           0        28        28       100
Tricocephalosis      50-2000           0        18        18       100



                                                     Conclusions
1.    The incidence of Isospora sp. infestation was 57.1 % in puppies and 30.4 % in kittens.
2.    The prevalence of Giardia sp. infestation was 11.7 % in dogs and 26.08 % in kittens.
3.    The incidence of Toxocara sp. infestation was 28.7 % in dogs and 21.7 % in cats.
4.    The incidence of Ancylostoma sp. infestation was 18.3 % in dogs and 8.6 % in cats.
5.    The prevalence of Trichocephalus vulpis infestation was 11.7 % in dogs, of which 61.1 % in adult dogs.
6.    The treatment of Isospora sp. infestation with Ultrasol was 95.6 % efficient.
7.    The treatment of Giardia sp. infestation with Flagyl was 85 % efficient.
8.    The treatment of nematodes infestations with the usual antihelminth preparations was 100 % efficient.

                                           
                                                      Bibliografy

1. Diaz V. et all ( 1996 ) – Aspects of animal giardiosis in Granada    
provience ( Southern  Spain ) , Vet. Parasitol. Vol. 64, nr.3,171 – 176.
2. El Memjakie S. M. et all ( 2007 ) A study of Toxocara species and its public health  importance .Vet.Med. Jour. Giza ( 55 ) , 1, 219 – 230.
3. Gonënc A., et all ( 1998 ) – The effect of  Drontal plus against ascarid and some cestode infestations in dogs. Acta Parasitol.Turcica 22, (4), 442-444
4. Heusinger A. – ( 2007 ) Giardieninfektionen , Kleintierpraxis 52, ( 4 ), 245 – 248.
5. Horejs R., Kondela B. ( 1994 ) – Giardia infection in dogs in a breeding unit. Vet.Med.  39, 2/ 3 , 93 – 101.
6. Jacob H..T.,Ayele T.,Fikru R.,Basu A:K: ( 2007 ) – Gastrointestinal nematodes in dogs  from Debre Zeit Ethiopia, Vet. Parasitol.148, 2,           144 – 148.
7. O’ Lorcain P. ( 1994 ) – Epidemiology of Toxocara sp. in stray dogs and cats in Dublin Ireland, Jour.of Helminthol. 9/ 2, 357 – 362.
8.Minnaarn W:N:,Krecek R:C: ( 2001 ) – Helminths in dogs belonging to people in a resource limited urban community in Gauteng South Africa. Onderstepoort Jour. of  Vet. Research 68, (2 ), 111 – 117.
9.Mitchell S:M. et all (2007) Cystoisospora canis infestation in dogs, clinical signs,  pathogenesis and reproducible clinical disease in beagle dogs fed oocyts-Jour. of Parasitol.93,(2) , 345-352
10.Papazahariadou M. at all (2007) Gastrointestinal parasites of Shepherd and hunting  dogs in the Serres Prefecture-Nothern Greece-Vet. Parasitol. , 148 (2), 170-173.

                              
                                                  Rezumat


Cercetările s-au efectuat pe un număr de 153 câini şi 23 pisici cu sindrom diareic după terapie îndelungată cu antibiotice. Examenul coproscopic a evidenţiat infestaţii cu specii de protozoare şi nematode corelate cu vârsta animalelor. Infestaţii cu Isospora s-au diagnosticat la 49,5 % din câinii examinaţi şi la 30,4 % din pisici fiind înregistrate numai la tineret. Incidenţa infestaţiilor cu  Giardia a fost de 15,6 % la câini din care 83,3 % la căţei şi de 26,08 la tineretul felin. Incidenţa infestaţiei cu Toxocara canis a fost de 28,7 % din care 81,8 % la căţei, iar cu Toxocara cati de 21,7 % din care 60 % la tineret. Infestaţii cu Ancylostomidae s-au diagnosticat la 18,3 % din câini din care 53,5 % la căţei şi 8,6 % la tineretul felin.Infestaţii cu Trichocephalus s-au înregistrat numai la câini cu o incidenţă de 11,7% din care 61,1% la adulţi.
Combaterea infestaţiilor cu Isospora sp. s-a realizat cu Ultrasol în doză de 20 – 30 mg /kg. administrat i.m. 3 zile consecutiv cu eficacitate de 96%.Infestaţiile cu Giardia sp. au fost tratate cu Flagyl în doză de 30 – 40 mg./kg.  per os timp de 6 zile cu eficacitate de 85%. Combaterea infestaţiilor nu nematode s-a efectuat cu produse antihelmintice uzuale şi s-a obţinut o eficacitate de 100% la 10 zile după tratament.
     Cuvinte cheie – protozoare, nematode, câini, pisici, incidenţă, terapie.
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